Running TSS/8 on the DEC PiDP-8/i and SIMH
Published: 26-07-2015 | Author: Remy van Elst | Text only version of this article
Table of Contents
In this guide I'll show you how run the TSS/8 operating system on the PiDPreplica by Oscar Vermeulen, and on SIMH on any other computer. I'll also cover afew basic commands like the editor, user management and system information.
TSS-8 was a little time-sharing operating system released in 1968 and requires aminimum of 12K words of memory and a swapping device; on a 24K word machine, itsupports up to 17 users. Each user gets a virtual 4K PDP-8; many of theutilities users ran on these virtual machines were only slightly modifiedversions of utilities from the Disk Monitor System or paper-tape environments.Internally, TSS-8 consists of RMON, the resident monitor, DMON, the disk monitor(file system), and KMON, the keyboard monitor (command shell). BASIC was wellsupported, while restricted (4K) versions of FORTRAN D and Algol were available
I've recently accuired a PDP-8 remake, the PiDP-8/i by Oscar Vermeulen.This beautiful piece of hand made hardware uses a Raspberry Pi to emulate aPDP-8 with SIMH. The front panel actually works, you can use the switched toload paper tapes, the RIM and BIN loader and all the other legacy goodness. Itis a bit smaller than a real PDP-8, it is scale 2:3. The real PDP-8 has 1.5 cmswitched, the PiDP-8 has 1.0 cm switches.
I have an interest in legacy systems like the PDP-11, VAX/VMS and othermainframes and minicomputers. The PiDP-8/i allows me to have a small piece ofthis legacy myself. It also motivated me to learn more about the PDP-8 and it'shard and software. It also inspired me to write this article about it. Sincethese systems are way older than me, emulation and recreation are the only wayfor me to use them, sadly.
I really encourage you to check out the PiDP-8. Order one as well, you caneither get a kit to construct yourself, or order an assembled version. Supportthis beautiful piece of work!
SIMH is an emulator which not only emulates a PDP-8, but a lot more oldermainframes and minicomputers. See the website for more information aboutSIMH.
This guide shows you how to run the TSS/8 operating system on the PiDP-8/iremake, and on a regular SIMH emulator. We will use Ubuntu 14.04 as our hostoperating system, but any OS that runs SIMH will do.
You can see all my PDP-8 related articles here.
You can read through the two guides to find out everything on TSS/8, includingloading tapes, assembler programming and more. This guide focusses on gettingyou up and running with TSS/8.
Preparing the PiDP-8/i
If you use the default software with the PiDP-8/i from Oscar you can set the IFswitches to octal 1 and toggle the Single Step switch to boot into TSS/8. The IFswitches are the leftmost white switches. The DF (Data Field) switches can beused to mount USB sticks as different storage media. The DF switches are theleftmost brown switches. See the image below:
Boot up the PiDP-8/i and hit the middle white switch. Toggle the single stepcounter, the OS/8 will reboot to TSS/8.
Make sure you are logged in via SSH or the serial console, and connected to thescreen session.
If you receive an error message, check the
/opt/pidp8/bootscripts/2.scriptfile. Make sure it is the same as the below SIMH config file.
Installing and configuring SIMH
If you have a PiDP-8/i and want to run from there, skip this section. If youdon't and use your regular computer, read on to set up SIMH.
First create a folder where you will store the disk image and the configurationfiles, and go in that folder:
mkdir pdp8cd pdp8
Ubuntu, and many other operating systems, have packages available for SIMH. Wecan use the built in package manager to install simh:
apt-get install simh
If your distro doesn't have simh, see their website for installationinstructions.
Download the prepared disk image and loader:
wget https://raymii.org/s/inc/downloads/pdp/tss8_init.binwget https://raymii.org/s/inc/downloads/pdp/tss8_rf.dsk
To make the start up proces easier you can set up an 'pdp8.ini' file with a fewcommands in it. SIMH will load and run these commands at startup if you executethe
pdp8.ini file has the following in it:
load tss8_init.binset rf enabledset df disabledattach rf tss8_rf.dskattach ttix 4000run 24200
It first loads the paper tape bootstrap. It mounts the TSS/8 disk image of theRF08 and it assigns a TCP/IP port to the Telnet listener for the extraterminals. It then runs the bootstrap.
Do note that you don't need to create this file, you can also enter thesecommands manually at the simh prompt.
In the current folder, execute the following command to start up SIMH with ourconfiguration file:
If all goes well, you should see something like below on the screen, PiDP-8/ioutput:
Rebooting /opt/pidp8/bootscripts/2.scriptHALT instruction, PC: 20512 (JMP 511)RX: writing buffer to fileRX: buffering file in memoryListening on port 4000 (socket 7)LOAD, DUMP, START, ETC?
Type START followed by ENTER to begin the boot process of TSS/8.
You will be asked for a date and time:
MONTH-DAY-YEAR: mm:dd:yy -- numeric, yy in range [74:85]HR:MIN - hh:mm -- numeric, 24 hour format
Enter for example
22:10. Then type
cr to continue to thelogin prompt.
Login using the following command:
LOGIN USERNAME PASSWORD
The login command does not display or echo.
The list of accounts and passwords in this specific image:
PPN Password[0,1] VH3M[0,2] LXHE[0,3] SHUG[77,77][1,10] WBCN[20,1] DT[20,2] PT[20,3] TSS8[20,4] EDIT[20,5] 4TH[1,50] JERK
We cover more on user management later on in the article, including how tocreate and modify users.
To login as user 1, the system user enter this:
LOGIN 1 VH3M
To login as user 1,10, (project 1, user 10) enter this:
LOGIN 1,10 WBCN
You will receive the following prompt after logging in:
.TSS/8.24 JOB 01 [01,10] K00 12:12:36SYSTEM IS DOWN, INC.
Primitive ls, CAT (catalog)
TSS/8 Monitor maintains a library of disk files for each user. The SystemLibrary Program CAT is used to obtain a catalog of the contents of this library.For each file, CAT types the size of the File in units of disk segments. Thesize of a disk segment may vary among installations. Generally, it is 256(decimal) words of disk storage. The protection code for the file is also given.(See the section on the PROTECT Monitor command (Chapter 9 of the manual) for aprecise explanation of protection codes.) If the program was created by any ofthe System Library Programs, it has a protection code of l2, meaning that otherusers can read the File, but only the owner can change it.
When the CAT program is used by the SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR (user 1), it prints outaccounting information. This report consists out of the accumulated time (inhours, minutes and seconds) for central processor usage and connect time as wellas the number of disk segments currently being used.
To see the contents of a users library, run the
.R CAT:L command. It will askfor an account number, after which it prints out the users directory. This wayyou can trace which user is using an abnormal amount of diskspace.
If you login as the user 2, you can execute the following command to see thecontents of the disk:
DISK FILES FOR USER 0, 2 ON 1-JAN-75NAME SIZE PROT DATEPALD .SAV 16 12 31-MAR-76LOADER.SAV 4 12 31-MAR-76FORT .SAV 6 12 31-MAR-76FOSL .SAV 6 12 31-MAR-76PIP .SAV 10 12 31-MAR-76TSTLPT.SAV 2 12 31-MAR-76LOGOUT.SAV 6 12 31-MAR-76SYSTAT.SAV 5 12 31-MAR-76EDIT .SAV 8 12 31-MAR-76FOCAL .SAV 16 12 31-MAR-76BASIC .SAV 38 12 31-MAR-76COPY .SAV 10 12 31-MAR-76CAT .SAV 6 12 31-MAR-76GRIPE .SAV 5 12 31-MAR-76LOGID .SAV 4 12 31-MAR-76PUTR .SAV 21 12 3-FEB-84ODTHI .SAV 2 12 29-FEB-84FLAP .SAV 1 12 7-APR-84PTLOAD.SAV 1 12 29-APR-84BLANK .SAV 1 12 9-JUN-84DTTEST.SAV 2 12 26-JUN-84INIT .SAV 17 12 29-JUL-84BAS000.TMP 1 17 1-JAN-84BAS100.TMP 1 17 1-JAN-84INTER .BAS 1 12 1-JAN-75REMY .ASC 1 12 1-JAN-75TOTAL DISK SEGMENTS: 189 QUOTA: 1575
SYSTAT command you get a full printout of what the system is doing,who is logged in and more:
SYSTATSTATUS OF TSS/8.24 DEC PDP-8 #1 AT 12:19:14 ON 1 JAN 75UPTIME 00:07:14JOB WHO WHERE WHAT STATUS RUNTIME 1 0, 2 K00 FOCAL ^BS ^Q 00:00:01 2 1,50 K01 SYSTAT RUN ^Q 00:00:00AVAILABLE CORE 16K FREE CORE=312BUSY DEVICES NONE 103 FREE DISK SEGMENTS
There are two users logged in, user 2 on teletype 0, user 50 on teletype 1. User2 is was FOCAL but is now on the prompt (
STATUS ^BS means monitor mode, thatis the prompt), user 50 is executing the
The manual has more information on SYSTAT, listed here for convinience.
It is frequently useful to know the status of the system as a whole; how manyusers are online, where they are, what they are doing, etc. The SYSTAT programprovides this capability.
SYSTAT responds by printing on the first line: the version of the TSS/8 Monitorbeing run, the time, and the date. SYSTAT reports the uptime which is the lengthof time in hours, minutes, and seconds since the system was last put online.
SYSTAT lists all online users. Each user is identified by his account number.The job number assigned to him and the number of the console he is using areindicated, as is the particular System Program he is running. The exact runningstate of each user, whether he is actually running (RUN), typing in (KEY) or out(TTY), doing input/output on another system device (IO or FIP), or not running(iB), is indicated.
The amount of computer time used by each user since he logged in is given.
It more users are online than the system has core Fields to hold them, the Factthat the system is swapping is reported. The number of Free core blocks usedinternally by TSS/8 Monitor for Teletype buffering and various other purposes istyped out.
Then SYSTAT reports any unavailable devices, i.e. , devices which are assignedto individual users. The job to which they are attached and their status (AS ifthey are assigned but not active, AS+INIT if they are assigned and active) isalso indicated.
Finally, the number of available segments of disk storage is reported.
To see the time that you have been logged in:
To see the system time:
You can start up the FOCAL69 programming environment with the
R FOCAL command,output below:
.R FOCALSHALL I RETAIN LOG, EXP, ATN ?:NOSHALL I RETAIN SINE, COSINE ?:NOPROCEED.*_TYPE "HELLO WORLD"HELLO WORLD*
To exit FOCAL, press
CTRL+B followed by the
S. Your prompt will be back to adot (
You can use the
TALK command to talk to other users logged in. Fire up TELNETon port 4000 on a terminal or two and login with the users
1,50(password JERK). On the
1,50 terminal, enter the following command to talk tothe system administrator (on teletype 0):
.TALK 0 PLEASE HELP
2 telnet session you will see this:
** K01 [01,50] ** PLEASE HELP
You can talk back:
.TALK 1 WHATS UP DOG
1,50 will see this:
** K00 [00,02] ** WHATS UP DOG
As the system administror (user 1) you can also send a message to all users atone with the
BROADCAST command. The following command:
.BROADCAST THE SYSTEM WILL SHTUDOWN IN 5 MINUTES
Will result in the following messages on all terminals (they are interupted):
*** THE SYSTEM WILL SHTUDOWN IN 5 MINUTES
TSS/8 has a BASIC programming environment. Start it up with the
R BASICcommand. It will ask you if you want to create a NEW file or load an OLD one.
Here's an example program, from the TSS/8 manual, to calculate loan interest. Wefirst enter a line number, then the instruction. Afterwards we save the file asINTER.BAS with the
SAVE command. We then run the script with the
.R BASICNEW OR OLD--NEWNEW PROGRAM NAME--INTERREADY10 REM - PROGRAM TO COMPUTE INTEREST ON A LOAD20 PRINT "INTEREST IN PERCENT";30 INPUT J40 LET J=J/10050 PRINT "AMOUNT OF LOAN";60 INPUT A70 PRINT "NUMBER OF YEARS";80 INPUT N90 print "NUMBER OF PAYMENTS PER YEAR";100 INPUT M110 LET N=N*M120 LET I=J/M130 LET B=1+I140 LET R = A*I/(1-1/B^N)150 PRINT "MONTHLY PAYMENT ="R160 PRINT "TOTAL INTEREST ="R*N-A170 ENDSAVE INTERRUN
INTEREST IN PERCENT? 8AMOUNT OF LOAN? 25000NUMBER OF YEARS? 20NUMBER OF PAYMENTS PER YEAR? 12MONTHLY PAYMENT = 209.1103TOTAL INTEREST = 25186.46READY
Exit BASIC with the
EDIT, the line editor
TSS/8 Editor provides the user with a powerful tool for creating and modifyingsource files on-line. EDIT allows the user to insert, change and append lines oftext; and then obtain a clean listing of the updated file. EDIT also containscommands for searching the file for a given character.
- Page 56, 6-1, DEC TSS/8 User guide
EDIT considers a file to be divided into logical units, called pages. A page oftext is geranlly 50-60 lines long, and hence corresponds to a physical page ofprogram listing. A FORTRAN-D program is generally 1-3 pages in length; a programprepared for PAL-D (the assembler) may be several pages in length. EDIT operateson one page of text at a time, allowing the user to relate his editing to thephysical pages of his listing. EDIT reads a page of text from the input fileinto its internal buffer where the page becomes available for editing. When apage has been completely updated, it is written onto the output file and thenext page of input is made available. EDIT provides several powerful commandsfor "paging" through the source file quickly and conveniently.
The end of a page of text is marked by a form feed (
CTRL+L) character. Formfeed is ignored by all TSS/8 language processors.
Here is the EDIT Command summary table from the manual.
Command | Format(s) | Meaning
READ | R | Read text from the input file and append to buffer until a formfeedis encountered.
APPEND | A | Append incoming text from keyboard to any already in buffer untilaform feed is encountered.
LIST | L
m,nL | List the entire buffer.
List line n.
List lines m through n inclusive.
PROCEED | P
n,mP | Output the contents of the buffer to the output file, followed by a formfeed.
Output line n, followed by a form feed.
Output lines m through n inclusive followed by a form feed.
TERMINATE | T | Close out the output file and return to TSS/8 Monitor.
NEXT | N
nN | Output the entire buffer and a form feed, kill the buffer and read the nextpage.
Repeat the above sequence n times.
KILL | nD
n,mD | Delete line n of the text.
Delete lines m through n inclusive.
INSERT | I
nI | Insert before line 1 all the text from the keyboarduntil a form feed isentered.
Insert before line n until a form feed is entered.
CHANGE | nC
m,nC | Delete line n, replace it with any number of lines from the keyboarduntil a form feed is entered.
Delete lines m through n, replace from keyboard as above until form feed isentered.
MOVE | m,n$kM | Move lines m through n inclusive to before line k.
GET | G | Get and list the next line beginning with a tag.
SEARCH | S
m,nS | Search the entire buffer for the character specified (but not echoed)after the carriage return. Allow modification when found. TSS/8Editor outputs aslash (/) before beginning a SEARCH.
Search line n, as above, allow modification.
Search lines m through n inclusive, allow modification.
END | E | Output the contents of the buffer. Read in any pages remaining in theinput file, outputting them to the output file. When everythingin the input filehas been moved to the output file, close it out and retum to the TSS/8 Monitor.
E is equivalent to a sufficient number of
N's followed by a
^C | CTRL+C | Stop listing and return to Command Mode.
You can download the two pages from the manual PDF as well from here.
I command you can enter text, with a
CTRL+L you exit insert mode.Save your file with
Above in the article there was a list of users for this image. Here below wecover the users, projects and permissions in more detail.
The account number is actually two numbers, a project number and a programmernumber. Account number 5440 is project number 54 and programmer number 40.Account number 102 is project 1, programmer 2. For this reason, account numbersmay be specified as two numbers seperated by comma's (i.e. 1,2), as wel as asingle number (102). Users may specify that all other user may share theirfiles, only users whose project number is the same, or no users at all.
The library account number (2 or 0,2) is no different from any other accountnumber. Users logged in as account number 2 may use TSS/8 just as any other userwould. The one thing that makes it special is that the R command automaticallyfetches the specified program from the library of account number 2. In this wayusers may get programs from this library without knowing specifically itsaccount number. The reason the library password is kept secret is to preventusers other than the system manager from altering its contents.
The system account number (1 or 0,1) is privileged. When logged in with thisaccount number and, password, the user has access to several uniquecapabilities, such as defining new passwords. It is, therefore, quite importantthat the system password remain secret.
LOGID is the program used to create new account number, password combinations.It is only usable by a user logged in with the system password. Therefore, thenext step in the system building process is to log in with this password (theaccount number is 1).
LOGID is then called by typing:
LOGID prints opening instructions, then an asterisk, and waits for you tospecify the user's account number and password separated by a space. As usual,terminate the line with the RETURN key. After entering the combination, LOGIDprints an asterisk and waits for another user account number-passwordcombination.
When all desired users and passwords have been defined, type
CTRL+B and then
S. Complete the process by logging out with the
LOGOUT command followed byRETURN.
To delete (close) a user, open the
LOGID program like above, and enter theusername and password (can be any password), followed by the
ESC key (ALTmode). The account number and all the files will be deleted, LOGID will printDELETED and another asterisk.
This concludes my overview of TSS/8. You are now able to edit files and users,gather some system information and run BASIC programs. This should get youstarted with the system and allow you to explore it more yourself.
The two manuals cover way more on the system, like a full assembler, FORTRAN andBASIC programming guide, and all aspects of interacting with peripherals likedisks, tape readers and teletypes. They both are quite an interesting read.Tags: adventure, articles, dec, fortran, os-8, pdp, pdp-8, pidp8, simh, tss-8